Category Archives: Science

Cars of the future

Maybe not flying yet like Jetsons or Back to the Future, but advances are in process and inevitable.

From Zacks Investment Management:

Self-Driving Cars Reach New Milestone – for those readers who are still reluctant to believe in the electric car and self-driving car revolutions, we understand (but it’s time to start believing). Where the U.S. government is generally snail-pace slow in legislating in lockstep with technological change, they have passed a bill that creates a national framework of regulations for the industry. The bill includes amendments covering cybersecurity issues and allows automakers to sell up to 80,000 self-driving vehicles annually, assuming that safety standards are met. On the automakers front, it’s been an active week as Ford detailed a strategy for future investment of research and resources into self-driving cars. General Motors followed suit by indicating that its ‘Cruise Automation’ business is making rapid progress on fully autonomous driving capabilities.

Lots of hate on Tesla and Elon Musk is a continuing theme, but Tesla just keeps on keepin’ on.  As soon as production of the Model 3 ramps up to plan, electric cars are a done deal and cannot be stopped.  I’m not sure why Zero Hedge has such an axe to grind (lots of MLP and energy positions, perhaps?), but they sure do.  Here’s a couple of the latest screeds:  http://www.zerohedge.com/news/2017-10-07/visualizing-many-failures-elon-musk

http://www.zerohedge.com/news/2017-10-06/teslas-big-secret-its-building-model-3s-hand

Meanwhile, the production line continues to go through development and troubleshooting:

The Model 3 body line slowed down to 1/10th speed

A post shared by Elon Musk (@elonmusk) on

And GM, Volvo, and Jaguar have also already announced they will be eliminating internal combustion engines completely.  https://www.wired.com/story/general-motors-electric-cars-plan-gm?mbid=social_twitter

 

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More EV confirmation

I recognize this is just me finding more confirmation of my existing beliefs, but, from Zacks Investment Management...

Electric Car Announcements – two European nations gave new meaning to the phrase “plug and play” this week, when both France and Britain made announcements about new rules banning all gas and diesel vehicle sales. France’s announcement came a day after the automaker Volvo said it would phase out the internal combustible engine, and both countries have made this pledge applicable to 2040. Meanwhile, the second largest automaker in the world, Toyota, said they are working on an electric car with an improved driving range and a fast-charging battery. The Japanese automaker wants to build an electric vehicle (EV) using solid-state batteries that can be recharged in minutes, with expectations for the new model to arrive as early as 2022. It appears the question is no longer if automakers are shifting to hybrids and EVs, but rather how soon. The race to electric should be fun to watch.

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Vertical Farming

This is really cool, and great news in a lot of ways.  From impactalpha.com:

Bowery Farming raises $20 million for vertical farm expansion. Indoor farming is still small but investors think it’s poised for growth with rising global food need and the environmental strain of traditional agriculture. Bowery Farming, based in Kearny, N.J., calls itself a tech venture focused on the future of food and claims its approach grows 100 times more produce than a similarly-sized outdoor farm. It has raised $27.5 million to date for its approach to growing greens indoors. The process uses LED lighting, robotics and specially-developed software. The latest funding round was backed by Google’s venture fund, GV; General Catalyst; and GGV Capital—a venture capital firm focused on the U.S. and China. Vertical farming “is no longer just a pie-in-the-sky theory,” says GGV’s Hans Tung. “It has the chance to scale in the next five years.” Earlier this month, AeroFarms, another New Jersey indoor farming operation, raised $34 million from Emirati investors interested in bringing the technology to the desert-covered Gulf region.

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Electric Airplanes

From Real Assets Advisor.  Electric planes are under serious development.  This is amazing.  Will they be covered in solar energy capturing PV panels?  How can they carry enough batteries and still fly?

“Easyjet has had discussions with Wright Electric and is actively providing an airline operator’s perspective on the development of this exciting technology,” the airline told the BBC.

Founded in 2016, Wright Electric says the first plane, the Wright One, is being designed for flights that cover air corridors such as New York-to-Boston, London-to-Paris, and Seoul-to-Jeju.

“Our plane has to be so much cheaper that it’s a no-brainer,” the company wrote in a recent blog post. “For context, Boeing built the 787 to achieve 20 percent fuel savings over the 767. Fuel is such an expensive component of flying that 20 percent was considered sufficient to justify the development costs of a new plane. In our case, the Wright One has the potential to achieve fuel savings of as much as 50 percent.”

Wright Electric hired a team that had been previously funded by NASA to investigate the potential for electric planes, which company co-founder Jeff Engler says puts the startup years ahead of the competition.

 

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Yale Brain Research

So, there are specific and separate “hunt” and “kill” neurons?  Each of those behaviors is complex, not simple.    From FT:

Scientists turn mild-mannered mice into killers

The researchers at Yale University used “optogenetic” technology, which switches specific neurons on and off in genetically engineered animals with laser light, to tap into brain mechanisms that control predatory hunting.

By manipulating brain cells in this region through optogenetics, the Yale team found one distinct set of neurons controlled pursuit and another controlled the kill. If the hunting neurons were switched on and the biting set inactivated, the mice pursued prey but could not deliver the killer bite to finish it off.

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Spinal Cord Stem Cell Therapy Success!

This is wonderful news.  From Patrick Cox, via John Mauldin:

USC neuroscientists just announced truly historic news about BioTime’s (BTX) (*see disclosure below) stem cell platform. For the first time, a quadriplegic patient with complete injury to the spinal cord has substantially recovered.

I’ve told you this was coming, but I wanted to get more information to you today as news of this long-awaited breakthrough in neurobiology spreads through the media. In fact, the news is even better than the information released by the Keck Medical Center of USC would indicate… and you should understand why.

A press release of this nature must follow strict conventions enforced by the SEC and FDA as well as traditional scientific guidelines. For example, the news release describes this spinal cord treatment, an injection of stem cells into the area of spinal cord injury, as “a procedure that may improve neurological function.” Watch the following video, however, and the only reasonable conclusion you can make is that the procedure has already done that.

Watch the entire B-roll video that USC has made available to the media. B-roll video isn’t edited as a story, of course. Rather, it’s meant to supply short video snippets for reporters. Nevertheless, most of this material is worth watching as it provides more information than is available in the extremely reserved press release, which is available here.

Note that Charles Liu, MD, PhD, says that this procedure should change the way that scientists and doctors think about spinal cord injury, making it possible to aim for full functional recovery for the first time.

The part of the B-roll that really gets me is seeing Kris Boesen, the 21-year-old man who received the treatment, wipe tears from his eyes while expressing his gratitude toward the scientists who made it possible. Prior to receiving BioTime’s stem cell therapy, Boesen was completely paralyzed from the neck down and couldn’t even lift his hands to his face.

Note also that Boesen mentions that his recovery is ongoing—from the top of the spine downward. We don’t yet know if he will regain use of his lower body, but he reports positive indications.

The critical part of this story that is entirely left out of the press release, however, is that the patient would have made a far better recovery if he had been treated promptly. Boesen was injured on March 6 but could only communicate his desire to participate in the clinical trial through head movements. He had to undergo assisted breathing therapy before he could give verbal consent.

That means that about a month of serious scarification took place before 10 million AST-OPC1 cells were injected into Boesen’s cervical spine. Scarring is the enemy of nerve reattachment and the reason that this procedure is only being administered to patients who have recently suffered spinal cord injuries.

Nevertheless, those stem cells managed to sort out and self-assemble, connecting severed nerves correctly from the upper and lower sides of the injury. This is the true power of regenerative medicine. It doesn’t rely on the surgeon’s skill. It’s the patient’s genome and the biological wisdom inherent in pluripotent stem cells that affect the cure.

 

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More Gut Bacteria Research: This time with Cancer treatments

From New Scientist:

How well a cancer treatment works might depend on what’s living in your gut. Two studies in mice have shown that gut bacteria can influence the effectiveness of treatments for cancer.

Drugs such as ipilimumab, which is given to people with advanced melanoma, work by activating the immune system to help it fight cancer.

Some people who take the drug experience inflammation in the gut. This led Mathias Chamaillard at the University of Lille, France, to wonder whether gut bacteria might be interacting with the drug.

To investigate, Chamaillard and his colleagues gave ipilimumab to mice that lack bacteria in their gut. The drug wasn’t as effective at treating cancer in these mice compared with mice with normal gut bacteria. The effectiveness of the drug also decreased when the normal mice were given antibiotics to wipe out their gut bacteria.

Faecal samples revealed that ipilimumab caused a decrease in two types of bacteria, Bacteroidales and Burkholderiales, in the gut. Replenishing these microbes in both sets of mice restored the efficacy of the drug.

There’s more; click the link.

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